The Dream Team: Exercise and Sleep
  1. The Dream Team: Exercise and Sleep

    Whether it’s time spent sweating in the gym, or time spent chasing the kids around the house, you probably get at least a little exercise in every day. While you’ve probably heard a plethora of reasons why you should be exercising daily, you may not know that it’s also really great for your sleep. Here are a few reasons why, and some tips on how you can make the best use of your exercise to get an awesome night’s sleep (and vice versa!).

    The vigorous cycle

    Research shows that when you exercise, you sleep longer and feel more rested upon waking. Even those who get a light amount of exercise report getting more high-quality sleep than those who get no exercise. Getting the right amount of sleep, in turn, gives you greater energy the next day, giving you the ability to exercise to your full potential. When you get consistent exercise and great sleep, you are starting up an invigorating cycle that will only result in greater improvements to your health.

    For those who include a more intense workout in their weekly routine, sleep also helps with muscle recovery. During sleep, there is a surge of growth hormones which help to repair muscle tissues (among many other parts of your body), allowing you to bounce back faster and be ready for exercise the next day. When you miss out on sleep, your body is missing out on much-needed repairs.

    The Dream Team: Exercise and Sleep

    Sleep, exercise, and aging

    Need more proof that these two heavyweights of health work hand in hand? We can take a look even deeper, down at the genetic level. The spirals of your individual packets of DNA are capped with telomeres that keep the strands from “fraying” and breaking down. Getting less sleep than you need or getting poor quality sleep causes these telomeres to weaken.

    Sleep scientist Matthew Walker in his book Why We Sleep tells us that this damaging of the telomeres from sleep deprivation appears to correspond with the aging of our bodies at an accelerated rate compared to our actual chronological ages. Exercise, on the other hand, has been found to do the opposite.

    In a recent study, it was shown that consistent exercise keeps telomeres strong and intact, keeping your body biologically younger than your non-exercising peers—up to nine years younger in fact. If you’ve ever encountered an active older adult who’s kept up an impressive workout routine throughout their life, this finding may not come as much of a surprise.

    The main takeaway? Whether you make daily exercise a high priority and let good sleep fall by the wayside, or you luxuriate in great sleep but give up on exercising—ignoring one and excelling at the other means that you’re not reaping the full benefits for your health.

    Sleep and exercise tips

    Looking to establish a good routine? To make the most of exercise’s impact on your sleep, it’s all about timing:

    • Don’t exercise right before bed, as this will raise your temperature, and a higher body temperature before bed prevents the onset of sleep.

    • If you must exercise in the afternoon or evening, try to schedule it in two or three hours before your bedtime.

    • The most ideal time to hit the gym is in the morning, as this will provide you with energy to begin the day. If you can get outdoors and soak up some sun, even better, as this will help to regulate your circadian rhythm and help you to have more alert mornings and an easier time falling asleep at night.


    If exercise has not exactly been your “thing”, getting great sleep may just give you the burst of energy you’ve been needing to hit the gym in the morning. And, if you’re a superstar exerciser but you only sleep a wink, improving the quality of your sleep can give you the extra few reps you might be missing.

    It’s clear then that, even on the genetic level, sleep and exercise are meant to work together, as excelling in one while ignoring the other will cancel out many positive effects. All of this serves as just another reminder to us that, when it comes to your body’s efforts to keep you healthy, sleep is the ultimate team player.

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  2. The Unstoppable Power of a Good Night's Sleep
  3. The Unstoppable Power of a Good Night's Sleep

    The impact of sleep

    Let’s be honest: when was the last time you woke up without an alarm clock and felt awesome? And when was the last time you made it through a whole day without feeling groggy and underslept (or without being alarmingly over-caffeinated)?

    1 in 3 American adults report that they are not getting enough sleep, and as it turns out, when we don't sleep, it’s really bad for us. Sleeping less than six or seven hours a night wreaks havoc on all aspects of our wellness. Carried out over a long period of time, these negative effects are only compounded.

    When you are sleep deprived, you: 

    These are only a few of the detrimental effects of losing out on sleep. The good news, though, is that when you get consistent quality sleep, you protect yourself from this damage, and you also reap the amazing, life-changing benefits of sleep. What do these look like? Well, for starters, getting great sleep:

    The awesome thing about sleep is that it really and truly enhances every organ and function studied to date: there has yet to be a part of our physiology that has not been found to benefit from quality sleep.

    The Unstoppable Power of a Good Night's Sleep

    Cover all your bases

    If getting great sleep always seems to be just out of reach for you, you should make sure that you’re maintaining good sleep hygiene, which simply means taking steps to protect yourself from losing sleep. Here’s the list from the NIH with tips to help you get your best sleep:

    1. Stick to a consistent sleep schedule.

    2. Exercise is great for sleep, but don’t do it too late in the day, as this can prevent you from falling asleep.

    3. Avoid caffeine and nicotine.

    4. Avoid alcoholic drinks close to bedtime.

    5. Avoid large beverages and meals late at night.

    6. Don’t take naps after 3 p.m.

    7. Relax before bed.

    8. Take a hot bath before bed.

    9. Keep your bedroom cool, completely dark, and free of any screens such as phones, TVs, tablets, etc.

    10. Get the right sunlight exposure, as this will help regulate your sleeping pattern.

    11. Don’t lie in bed awake. If sleep doesn’t come on after lying in bed for more than 30 minutes, or you start to feel anxious or stressed, get up and do a relaxing activity in a different room, and head back to bed once you feel tired.

    The mighty slumber

    Sleep is infinitely more complex, profoundly more interesting, and alarmingly more relevant to our health and wellness than we could've ever predicted even a hundred years ago—and we are always learning more about it. Many health professionals are calling sleep the single-most beneficial thing we can do for preventative care. There is just nothing out there that can claim to do for your body all the things that sleep can do. Make sure to take advantage of this wonderful remedy tonight!

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  4. Every Hour Counts: How to Beat Chronic Sleep Loss
  5. Every Hour Counts: How to Beat Chronic Sleep Loss

    If you have a sneaking suspicion that you’re not getting enough sleep every night, you can find a little comfort in knowing that you are definitely not alone. A recent study by the CDC states that 1 in 3 Americans are getting an insufficient amount of sleep, which means less than 7 hours of shut-eye a night.

    Losing more than sleep

    If you are one of the many Americans who are content if they can get five or six hours of sleep a night, you might think, “Well, what’s an hour more or less of sleep?” It turns out that hour can make an enormous difference. Spread out over months, years, or even (sadly) an entire lifetime, this condition is known as chronic sleep deprivation, and it comes with serious consequences, such as an increased chance of developing hypertension and diabetes.

    As sleep is one of your main protectors against rampaging diseases and debilitating conditions, losing out on an hour or two every night means lowering your defenses, and taking unnecessary risks with your health.

    What’s in an hour?

    Not only is it dangerous to constantly get less than 7 hours of sleep, but it also deprives you of getting quality sleep.

    When you’re asleep, your brain is cycling through the two main types of sleep: rapid-eye-movement sleep (REM) and non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (NREM). Sleep scientist Matthew Walker in his book Why We Sleep tells us that waking up too early or going to bed too late can steal away the time you should be spending in these important phases that work to keep us physically and mentally in good shape.

    Walker gives us the example of going to sleep at midnight and instead of waking up at eight in the morning, you’re up at six a.m. for an early meeting. The logical answer to how much sleep you’ve lost would be 25 percent (as you’ve lost two hours from the recommended eight), but that’s not entirely true. “Since your brain desires most of its REM sleep in the...late-morning hours,” Walker tells us, “you will lose 60 to 90 percent of all your REM sleep, even though you are losing 25 percent of your total sleep time”.

    Similarly, if you wake up at eight a.m. but don’t go to bed until two a.m., “then you lose a significant amount of NREM sleep”. According to Walker, losing these precious couple of hours at the beginning or ending of sleep is “[s]imilar to an unbalanced diet in which you only eat carbohydrates and are left malnourished by the absence of protein”. Clearly, when it comes to the efficient operating system of sleep, an hour is much more than just an hour.

    920x519 phone_at_night

    Put sleep on the schedule

    If you’re like a lot of people, you may spend the end of your day in bed, unwinding by going through Facebook notifications or scrolling through your Twitter feed. Screens do a fantastic job of keeping our brains itching to refresh the page just one more time before shutting off for the night. Despite tucking yourself in at nine may not actually be going to sleep until much later. This common activity could be shaving off an hour or two every night from your sleep.

    A solution? Giving yourself an eight-hour “sleep opportunity”. That doesn’t necessarily mean that you’re going to be asleep for eight hours, but you are going to carve out that time to give your body rest every night. This eight-hour span of time should be reserved especially as “sleep time”—not a refresh-the-feed time.

    This “sleepportunity” gives you enough cushion to fall asleep, have an occasional night time wake up, and still give your body those beautiful seven to eight hours of sleep.

    A friend indeed

    Sleep is our constant companion for one-third of our lives (one-third!), and just like any special relationship we want to keep going strong, it requires us to carve time out of our day and make it a priority. If you treat your sleep well, you can be sure that it will return the favor many times over.

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  6. How Sleep Aids in Weight Loss
  7. How Sleep Aids in Weight Loss

    Did you know that getting quality, restful sleep can help you lose weight?

    According to Sanjay Patel, M.D. a researcher at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, at least two dozen studies have confirmed that people who sleep less tend to weigh more. Studying almost 70,000 women over the course of 16 years, Patel and his colleagues discovered that women who sleep less than five hours a night were far more likely to gain weight than those who get at least seven and a half hours. And the difference wasn't negligible. In fact, they were 30% more likely to gain 30 or more pounds. Yikes.

    The sleep connection to appetite and metabolism.

    There are several different ways losing sleep can thwart your weight loss efforts. Research from the University of Chicago suggests that sleep deprivation may lead to a change in how our bodies regulate appetite, leading us to crave more food. “You may start not only eating more, but eating unhealthy foods — those high in fat and carbohydrates,” says Patel. “Another possibility is that because people who are sleep-deprived feel more fatigued, they exercise less. Sleep deprivation can also change your basal metabolic rate, slowing down how many calories you burn just doing basic life-sustaining activities, like breathing and maintaining body temperature.”

    The nitty gritty science of it.

    Michael Breus, Ph.D., clinical director of the sleep division at Southwest Spine & Sport in Scottsdale, Arizona, and author of Beauty Sleep, reports that sleep deprivation leads to an overproduction of ghrelin and a decrease in leptin production. Ghrelin is hormone that causes hunger; leptin is a hormone that prompts people to stop eating. This imbalance can lead to over-eating. Furthermore, the brain secretes growth hormones during sleep, which helps metabolize fat in the body.

    In short, the intertwined nature of sleep and weight loss continues to be uncovered, and in all cases it seems that better sleep contributes to a more ideal weight. If you're struggling to lose a few pounds, it might be time to refocus on your nightly slumber rather than the next juice cleanse.

    For more info about how different sleeping positions can help you sleep better, click here.

    Pregnant? New parent or have small kids? Tired? Get tips and info on our special site for exhausted moms. 

    Ready to start sleeping better? exhausted moms

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  8. Sleep and Weight Loss: Why Shut-Eye Is Essential for A Leaner You
  9. Sleep and Weight Loss: Why Shut-Eye Is Essential for A Leaner You

    There are a couple oft-cited “epidemics” in America, one being obesity, and the other inadequate sleep. Unfortunately, it’s not just attention-grabbing headlines: according to studies, over one third of Americans are obese, and one third don’t get enough sleep.

    The closeness of these two figures may be more than coincidence. A growing body of research shows a strong association between sleep deprivation and weight gain. In a meta-analysis that encompassed 634,511 subjects, both male and female, ranging in age from 2 to 102, researchers found a consistent increased risk of obesity among those who don’t sleep enough.

    So what role does sleep loss play in weight gain—and, on the flip side, can quality sleep help with weight loss?

    Sleep and Weight Loss

    Weary willpower  

    Before a bunch of unhealthy food can cause weight gain, you first have to make the decision to eat that unhealthy food. And there’s a great deal of evidence that sleep plays a major role in deciding whether or not you indulge.

    Sleep deprivation dulls activity in the brain’s frontal lobe, which is the region responsible for decision making and impulse control. So when a coworker offers you a donut, you take it, rather than eating the yogurt you so dutifully packed.  

    What’s more, being overly tired actually makes your brain more interested in junk than you’d normally be. This is because sleep deprivation lights up your brain’s reward center, leading you to seek “pleasurable, rewarding experiences”… such as the nefarious donut mentioned earlier.

    In one study from Berkeley, participants rated the desirability of certain foods both when they were well-rested and then again after sleep deprivation. In the state of sleep debt, the amygdala portion of the brain (which is involved in emotions, pleasure and appetite, and an important part of the brain’s reward system) was highly activated. Participants consistently rated unhealthy, high-calorie foods as more desirable than they had when they were well-rested.

    The research bears out in real life, too. Sleep-deprived Japanese factory workers are more likely to snack between meals, eat out, and not eat vegetables; Americans who don’t sleep enough consume more sugar and have less variety in their diet; in Germany, inadequate sleep is associated with increased fast food consumption.

    And to top it all off, sleep-deprived people also eat bigger portions. Bottom line: sleep helps you resist temptation and make smarter food choices.

    Sleep and Weight Loss

    Fatigue and fullness

    So say you’re sleep-deprived and you splurge on two (okay, three) slices of pizza at lunch.  At least you’ll be full for a while and not eat anymore waistline-expanding goodies, right?

    Well, maybe not.

    Short sleep disrupts the balance of your hormones, including leptin and ghrelin. Leptin is often referred to as the “satiety hormone,” causing you to feel full and suppressing appetite, while ghrelin triggers hunger and plays a large role in initiating eating.

    When you’re not well-rested, your leptin levels plummet and your ghrelin levels rise; one study found that subjects who slept for 5 hours had 15.5% lower leptin than those who slept a full 8 hours, and 14.9% higher ghrelin. This means that you’ll not only be eating less healthy, more caloric food—you’ll also feel hungrier and seek food more frequently.

    Sleepless and stress-full

    Among the many benefits of proper sleep is that it can reduce stress, which, in turn, can help reduce your weight. How? It comes back to another hormone—this time, cortisol.

    Cortisol is a hormone that is released in response to stress, and its levels are closely tied to our natural sleep/wake cycles. So when those cycles get disrupted, so do those levels, causing a spike in cortisol in the bloodstream.

    This spike doesn’t just make you feel stressed out. Cortisol causes fat to be stored around the organs (especially visceral organs, which translates to belly fat), and also causes fat cells to become larger. Studies have shown that elevated cortisol can cause increased belly fat even in otherwise slender individuals.

    Sleep and Weight Loss

    Metabolism malfunction

    You know how not sleeping well makes you feel groggy and lethargic? Well, turns out your metabolism feels pretty much the same way.

    When you’re well-rested, your metabolism is a well-oiled machine, efficiently processing the calories that you consume. On the flip side, when you’re in a state of sleep deprivation, your groggy metabolism can’t keep up with your food intake. What causes this breakdown? It all comes down to insulin.

    See, insulin plays an important role in helping our body convert sugar into energy for our cells. When our body can’t properly use insulin (insulin resistance) that sugar remains in our bloodstream and eventually is converted into fat. This is the case for those who have diabetes—and, research shows, for those who aren’t getting enough sleep.

    One study showed that after just four nights of short sleep, subjects’ ability to respond to insulin decreased by 16%—a difference comparable to that between the cells of obese vs. lean people—and the insulin sensitivity of their fat cells dropped by 30%. The latter is particularly important because fat cells play a crucial role in storing and releasing energy. Meanwhile, insulin resistance in the brain means that insulin can’t do its job of reducing hunger cues.

    One report put it in stark terms: “Chronic sleep loss can reduce the capacity of even young adults to perform basic metabolic functions, such as processing and storing carbohydrates or regulating hormone secretion.”

    As if your metabolism wasn’t getting a big enough blow from the insulin resistance, there’s this: sleep deprivation reduces the production of thyroid-stimulating-hormone, which is an essential player in proper metabolism. Ouch.

    Too sleepy to sweat

    Anyone who has tried to slim down or get into better shape knows the importance of regular exercise, as well as how tough it can be to get into a workout routine. To the surprise of exactly nobody, not getting enough sleep makes it much more difficult to achieve this.

    It’s intuitive—when you’re tired, you don’t want to go exert a bunch of energy. And studies show that subjects with sleep problems report a significant reduction in their levels of physical activity. What’s more, the increased ghrelin and decreased leptin levels associated with sleep loss mean an overall reduction in energy expenditure.

    And if you do drag your tired butt to the gym, you’ll be fighting an uphill battle to keep yourself there for a full workout. Sleep deprivation increases your perceived exertion and increases the likelihood that you’ll cut your sweat session short.

    Sweet dreams for good genes

    Your lifestyle is a huge factor in determining your weight, but the fact is that genetics also play a role. This can be super discouraging to those who are working hard to eat right and work out but still can’t lose the weight because of a genetic predisposition to a higher BMI.

    However, research shows that adequate sleep can reduce the influence your genetics have on your weight. In a study of identical twins that looked at BMI, genetics, and lifestyle factors including diet, exercise, and sleep habits, they found that the BMI variations in those who slept adequately were less dependent on genetics. However, those who slept less saw 70% of their BMI variations come from hereditary factors.

    Sleep and Weight Loss

    The final word

    From the food you choose to eat, to how your body processes that food, to your workouts, to the relative impact of all of these components, sleep influences every aspect of your weight. Diet and exercise may get more press, but science has made it increasingly clear that sleep is the essential third pillar of fitness.

    So if losing weight, getting fit, or just maintaining a healthy BMI is one of your resolutions, getting enough shut-eye needs to be as well.

    Interested in the latest ways a good bed can help you sleep? Read more here.

    Pregnant? New parent or have small kids? Tired? Get tips and info on our special site for exhausted moms. 

    Ready to start sleeping better?

    moms need sleep

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  10. Stay Sharp! Sleep, Aging, and Your Brain
  11. Stay Sharp! Sleep, Aging, and Your Brain

    It’s an unfortunate but nearly universal fact that as we age, we become a little less…um…what’s the word we’re looking for… quick. Or, as our slowed synapses might have it, the brain don’t work so good no more. This is nothing to get down on yourself for—deficits in cognitive performance are a universal consequence of the aging process. It can start from as early as 45 years old, and its myriad forms—cognitive decline, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease—stem from the same basic condition: age. Like your skin and your bones, your brain gradually becomes weaker over time, and things like learning new skills, retaining memories, and using language become more and more difficult. For most, it usually happens so slowly that it’s hard to notice that anything is happening at all.

    So is there anything you can do to halt, or at least slow down, this process? For those of us already in the age group most likely to suffer from dementia and mental decline—65 years and older—a variety of methods may help slow the onset, including managing blood sugar levels, staying physically active, consuming a lot of antioxidants (berries are a brain favorite), and keeping the brain challenged with  activities like crossword puzzlesongoing study, and meditation.

    But an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. What can be done to reduce the risk of cognitive decline? How can we stop it before it’s begun? The tactics above are certainly useful, but there’s an undervalued factor that’s as simple and effortless as closing your eyes.

    Oh yeah, we’re talking about sleep.

    You probably already know that when you’re tired, your mind moves a little more slowly than usual, and science has proven this from every angle. Sleep deprivation severely diminishes your ability to learn and retain information, all while decimating your coordination and reaction time to boot.

    What’s really troubling is that these problems compound over the long term. One day of low sleep will disrupt a litany of hormonal reactions that your body needs for optimal function. Fortunately, catching up on those lost Zs with some better sleep will more or less right the wrong—the body is nothing if not good at bouncing back.

    But what happens if the body isn’t given the time it needs to recover? What if one day of bad sleep is followed by another, and another? A 2014 study in the American Academy of Sleep Medicine sought to answer that question by looking at 2,822 men with a mean age of 76 years. After using a wrist actigraph to study their sleeping habits over an average period of three and a half years, they found that fragmented sleep resulted in a 40 to 50 percent increase in the odds of clinically significant cognitive decline. This is such a severe increase that the study authors equated it with adding on five years of age. They also noted that cognitive impairment is actually increasing in the elderly, making it all the more important to nail down its causes.

    Sleep (or lack thereof) is a pretty darn big one, and other studies have found plenty of reasons why. Sleep apnea, for instance, disturbs sleep quality and can result in less oxygen reaching the brain, and a 20-year study of Californian women found that women with problematic sleep were almost twice as likely to experience dementia or cognitive impairment. Other research has found that fragmented sleep, whatever its cause, results in an overall reduction in slow wave sleep, which is crucial for normalizing cortisol and inflammation, which can both lead to mental decline.

    In the end, sleep isn’t just important; it’s a pillar of a healthy lifestyle, equally as crucial as diet, exercise, and mental health. Indeed, it has a profound effect on all three. While six pack abs may be impossible to maintain in a nursing home, cognitive function is—especially if you start sleeping better tonight.

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  12. Sleeping Solutions for Chronic Back Pain
  13. Sleeping Solutions for Chronic Back Pain

    If you’re one of the eighty percent of adults living with back pain, getting a good night’s sleep is a feat.  But don’t let that stand between you and quality rest. One of our power beds is a great way to expand your range of comfortable sleeping positions, of course. But there are additional ways to help deal with a bad back. Try these six tips for a little relief, and let us know if they work for you.

    1)   If you sleep on your side, pull your knees up slightly and place a pillow between them. This will help keep your legs from sliding and help reduce the stress from your hips and lower back.

    2)   If you sleep on your back, put a pillow under your knees. This will help maintain the natural curve of your lower back. If it doesn’t help, try adding a small, rolled towel under the small of your back for some extra support.

    3)   Don’t sleep on your stomach. This can flatten your spine’s natural curve, straining the back muscles. Additionally, it may also twist your neck. Unofficial CrossFit physical therapist Kelly Starrett notes that sleeping on your stomach results in “crushing down” of your cervical vertebrae joints. The cervical vertebrae are the thinnest and most delicate bones, and they have a huge job. Not only do they support the head, but they also protect the spinal cord and provide mobility to the head and the neck. Your neck sustains enough damage from sitting all day; please be kind to it at night.

    4)   Choose the right mattress. A mattress that’s too soft or saggy can throw your spine out of alignment. Ditch sleep systems made out of short-lived springs that push back against the body, and choose one that’s made with natural latex. (Bonus: It’ll be a lot more resistant to dust mites and mold.)

    5)   Improve your pillow game. Replace your pillow every twelve to eighteen months. Get ready to be grossed out: up to half the weight of an old pillow can be skin cells, mold, fungus, and dust mites. Yuck! Back sleepers need thinner pillows to prevent the head from being pushed too far forward. Side sleepers should get a firmer pillow to fill in the space between the shoulder and the ear. For those wanting an advanced pillow strategy, invest in a pillow with extra thickness in the bottom third, which will help cradle your neck. A low-budget alternative from Kelly Starrett: insert a rolled up towel into your pillow sleeve.

    6)   Be mindful of your activity levels during the day. If you have back pain during the eight hours you sleep, there’s a good chance it stems from what your back does during the day. You’re almost certainly sitting (or slouching) too much. Try to stand as much as possible during the day, work on your posture, and stretch at least once per day. Finally, your feet may be to blame for some of the back pain, so make sure they're properly cared for as well.

    What's the big deal about Zero Gravity position for sore backs? Learn more.

    Note: This website is not intended to diagnose or treat any medical condition. If you have any concerns or questions about your health, always consult with a physician or other health care professional.

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  14. Sleep Apnea: Symptoms, Causes, and Remedies
  15. Sleep Apnea: Symptoms, Causes, and Remedies

    recent release from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention confirmed what many of us already knew: over a third of all American adults aren’t getting enough sleep. It’s enough for the government to label insomnia as a public health problem, but the inability to fall asleep doesn’t tell the whole story. What about those who do manage to get their nightly eight hours of sleep but still aren’t rested the next morning?

    This is the lot for people with sleep apnea, a condition that affects somewhere between twelve and twenty million Americans.

    Sleep apnea is a condition that results in long gaps, or “apneas” between breaths. A person with sleep apnea breathes far less than a normal sleeper, which results in a much less restful sleep.

    So, Sleep Apnea Makes You Tired?

    Well, yes. But unfortunately, it does a lot more than that.

    Not to be morbid, but sleep apnea could be described as really, really slow suffocation. Imagine that you spent eight hours each day – the length of an average workday – not breathing as often as you want to, and you might start to understand the kind of pressure put on a body when it’s experiencing chronic sleep apnea.

    The tragic irony of sleep becoming the least restful part of the day has far-reaching ramifications. The lower rate of breathing robs the body of oxygen, resulting in higher levels of carbon dioxide in the blood. That has long-term consequences that can include high blood pressure, neuromuscular diseasesheart failure, and death.

    To make matters worse, sleep apnea might also be the cause of a low sex drive by way of low testosterone. One study of 2,121 policemen found that men with the condition are 50 percent more likely to experience abnormally low levels of testosterone. Other studies have found that men with sleep apnea are more than twice as likely to suffer from erectile problems, and that women also become more prone to sexual dysfunction.

    The warning signs and symptoms of sleep apnea include fatigue, morning headaches, brain fog, depression, waking frequently to urinate, and a dry mouth or sore throat upon waking.

    3 Kinds of Sleep Apnea You Should Know About

    The most common form of the condition is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which could be seen as a relative of snoring; the sound of a snore is caused by a partial obstruction of the airway, and OSA occurs when the airway is completely blocked. OSA is often simply labeled “sleep apnea,” but there are in fact two other kinds.

    The second type, central sleep apnea, isn’t caused by an obstruction. Rather, it occurs when the brain temporarily fails to signal the muscles that are responsible for breathing – something we rely on the brain to do when we’re not conscious. Some estimate that just twenty percent of sleep apnea cases are caused by central sleep apnea, but the real number is probably lower. It’s usually caused by medical problems that affect the brainstem, like Parkinson’s disease and strokes, and treating the underlying medical condition, whatever that may be, is the typical remedy.

    Finally, there’s complex sleep apnea, which is sometimes called mixed sleep apnea. This is a combination of the two kinds described above, and one study of 223 sleep apnea patients found that 15 percent of folks who reported having OSA actually were suffering from complex sleep apnea.

    What Sleep Apnea Remedies Are Available?

    Back sleepers are far more prone to snoring and obstructive sleep apnea, and if a person is flexible with their sleeping position, simply lying on their side can be an effective remedy. Choosing the correct neck support pillow can help, and there’s also evidence that performing basic neck strengthening exercises can improve OSA.

    But the most commonly prescribed method is to lose the weight. Overweight and obese people are far more likely to suffer from obstructive sleep apnea, and weight loss should help to reduce excess soft tissue of the mouth and throat that can cause the airways to become blocked. If a person has the condition and their neck circumference is greater than 17.5 inches, weight loss is almost certainly the solution.

    If weight loss isn’t helpful or possible, or if a person is suffering from central or complex sleep apnea, doctors may prescribe a CPAP, which stands for continuous positive airway pressure. Helpful for any form of the condition, a CPAP is an air pump that maintains airflow as a person sleeps, and while they have a reputation for being loud like a generator, requisite of intrusive face masks, and not remotely conducive to a good night’s sleep, tech developers have been engineering progressively quieter and less invasive versions.

    In the absence of a CPAP or a similar device, like a bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) or adaptive-servo ventilation (ASV), medications like acetazolamide or theophylline may be prescribed. Talk to your doctor about what sleep apnea remedies are available to you.

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  16. Is Melatonin a Safe Sleep Remedy?
  17. Is Melatonin a Safe Sleep Remedy?

    It’s probably the most widely used sleep supplement available, and at about five bucks for a month’s supply, it’s our pick for cheapest. But tales of overuse and unusual side effects make melatonin a not-so-straightforward choice. Here, we’ll clear up a few things—plus share some lesser-known facts about this ubiquitous sleep remedy.

    It doesn’t just come in pill form.

    Melatonin can be taken in tablets, capsules, liquid, and even in patches that transfer the hormone via your skin.

    And you can get melatonin from your food.

    Few foods actually contain melatonin, but tart cherries (especially Montmorency cherries) are a surprisingly good source of the stuff, and a few studies have confirmed its presence in grains like wheat, barley, and oats. (Some people even bake it into cakes and sell them as relaxation aids!)

    While they might not actually contain melatonin, there’s also evidence that bananas and (to a much lesser extent) oranges and pineapples can lead to increased serum melatonin levels. And given that bananas are also packed with potassium and magnesium, two natural muscle relaxants, this makes ‘em a great bedtime snack!

    But the most important way to control your melatonin is light.

    Everything from your brain activity to your exercise performance is influenced by your circadian rhythm, an internal clock that responds predominantly to light and darkness, and your melatonin production is no different.

    Want your body to keep this sleep-inducing hormone low during the day and high as you approach bedtime? Use a dimmer switch and table lamps as your day winds down, invest in some blackout curtains to keep your room, well, blacked out, and try to prevent your phone, digital clock, and other electronics from illuminating the darkness.

    It’s not just used for better sleep.

    Melatonin is actually an antioxidant, (and a pretty powerful one at that), so it protects against free radicals that can cause cancer, stroke, and heart disease. A July 2015 study in theJournal of Pineal Research, for example, concluded that melatonin may be an effective way to prevent various forms of heart dysfunction. It’s also been shown to be a really effective supplement for people undergoing chemotherapy. In some cases, it’s led to substantial improvements in tumor remission, alleviation of chemo side effects, and even overall survival rates.

    It can have some funky side effects.

    It’s a sleeping pill, but drowsiness isn’t the only side effect. Among some people it can lower body temperature, alter blood pressure, decrease libido, or induce stomach cramps.

    And then there are the widespread reports that it gives you vivid, crazy dreams. Which is just another reason why…

    You really shouldn’t take it without talking to a doctor.

    It’s freely available over-the-counter, but melatonin may cause harm in combination with certain medications. Antidepressants and sedatives in particular appear to interact negatively with the drug, but even the common birth control pill affects the body’s production of melatonin and might give your system a surplus when used in combination. Diabetes meds, blood-thinners, and medications that suppress the immune system (common for folks on the receiving end of organ transplants) can also make cavalier melatonin dosing a very bad idea.

    Unless you’re perfectly healthy and don’t use any medications, talk to your doctor before popping pills. And if you do decide to experiment with melatonin, start slow: begin with a dosage of 0.5 milligrams and gradually increase it until you find what works for you.

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